Please take this quick survey to tell us about what happens after you publish a paper. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. The realization of the contribution of peasant agriculture to food security in the midst of scenarios of climate change, economic and energy crisis, led to the concepts of food sovereignty and agroecologically based production systems to gain much attention in the developing world in the last two decades. Ecological Agriculture Technology And Industrialization Serving Agriculture Ruralareas And Farmers S New approaches and technologies involving application of blended modern agricultural science and indigenous knowledge systems and spearheaded by thousands of farmers, NGOs, and some government and academic institutions are proving to enhance food security while conserving agrobiodiversity soil and water resources conservation throughout hundreds of rural communities in the developing world. Case studies from Cuba, Brazil, Philippines, and Africa are presented to demonstrate how the agroecological development paradigm based on the revitalization of small farms which emphasizes diversity, synergy, recycling and integration, and social processes that value community participation and empowerment, proves to be perhaps one of the only viable options to meet present and future food needs. Given the present and predicted near future climate, energy and economic scenarios, agroecology has emerged as one of the most robust pathways towards designing biodiverse, productive, and resilient agroecosystems available today. Peasant agriculture: the roots of the agroecological proposal.
This framework generally consists of three major categories: basic agricultural policies, policies to support agricultural production, and policies to protect agricultural benefits. In details, the policies cover 16 areas, including basic rural management system, agricultural subsid y policy, agricultural technology policy, and resources and environment protection policy, etc.
T hese policies have played an important role in the development of the agricultural and rural economics. B ased on the existing policies, Chinese government has developed a number of new policies for the future development of agriculture.
The new policies generally include: improving national food security system, enhancing agricultural supporting and protection system, establishing long-term sustainable development mechanism of agriculture, deepening the reform of rural land system, building of new agricultural management system, accelerating rural financial system innovation and developing the mechanism of urban-rural integration, etc.
Since the s, the agricultural economy and rural development in China has made tremendous achievements, and innovation and implementation of agricultural policies played a key role. However, entering the new century, China is facing a more complex macroeconomic situation:. So, to keep agriculture sustainable, stable and harmonious development, China has to promote agricultural policy innovation based on the new features of its own agricultural development and continuing to strengthen the foundation of existing agricultural policies.
This paper provides a systematic insight into the China agricultural policies since the new century. Since the new century, China has undergone significant changes in economy and society, and agricultural economy and rural development has stepped into a new stage.
The first feature is that the management system of agriculture was converted to active design from passive adjustment. Government has implemented a series of "giving more, taking less and liberalize" policies to benefit the agriculture, and agricultural system started to convert from passive adjustment to active design.
The second feature is the tight balance of the overall supply and demand of the agricultural products and accelerated shortage of some varieties. InChina encountered its first deficit in agricultural product international trade, and the situation has not reversed till now. Food self-sufficiency rate has dropped from The structural shortage of some varieties is serious, for example, 2. In addition, structural shortage is also partially reflected on the shortage of high-quality agricultural products.The new policies generally include: improving national food security system, enhancing agricultural supporting and protection system, establishing long-term sustainable development mechanism of agriculture, deepening the reform of rural land system, building of new agricultural management system, accelerating rural financial system innovation and developing the mechanism of urban-rural integration, etc. Since the s, the agricultural economy and rural development in China has made tremendous achievements, and innovation and implementation of agricultural policies played a key role. This framework generally consists of three major categories: basic agricultural policies, policies to support agricultural production, and policies to protect agricultural benefits. T hese policies have played an important role in the development of the agricultural and rural economics. In details, the policies cover 16 areas, including basic rural management system, agricultural subsid y policy, agricultural technology policy, and resources and environment protection policy, etc. B ased on the existing policies, Chinese government has developed a number of new policies for the future development of agriculture.
The occurrence of a series of food safety incidents has driven a sharp increase in demand for safe and high quality agricultural products. The third feature is the rising of production cost and various fees. Sincethe cost of agricultural production started a new round of rising, and the costs started to increase significantly in Meanwhile, the various types of agricultural production costs hiked, and the unit costs, such as wages per working day, the costs of land, fertilizer, and machinery per Mu, kept increasing for farming.
The fourth feature is the volatile rising of agricultural products and the growing number of affecting factors. The prices of three major grain rice, wheat and cornvegetable and cotton have less annual volatility, while that of soybeans, cooking oil and pork is greater; and the prices of vegetables have strong cyclical fluctuations within the year. The dominant causes of the rising of agricultural products are the increased cost, changes in demand-supply structure, excessive money supply, and influences of international prices, etc.
The fifth feature is the limited rural labor surplus and structural shortage of agricultural labor. Because of China's large rural population, there are currently about million rural surplus laborers.
However, with a large number of rural labor force moving to urban, the proportion of young, relatively well-educated, and male labor force dropped significantly, leading to a significant shortage in young rural labor force in busy seasons and certain regions. The sixth feature is the acceleration of the process of agricultural organization and diversity of the operation modes. By the end of, farmer cooperatives were registered nationwide, and Vertical integration of agriculture process was speeding up, and the scale of operation of agriculture was expanded.
The seventh feature is the steady growth of technology contribution rate and the increasingly prominent position of technology in agriculture. The percentages of wage income, household business income, transfer income, and property income in were Sustainability is to well handle the relationship of the exploitation, conservation and protection of the agricultural resources, and to ensure environmental friendly, ecological improving, and sustainable development of agriculture.
Harmony is to coordinate the development between agriculture and other industries, and to prevent stagnation in agricultural development.
Innovation is to develop modern agriculture, and to realize innovation of technology, agricultural system and management. Since s, Chinese government has implemented a series of policies and measures for agriculture according to the national economic and agricultural development in different periods.
The dual management system, basing itself on the family contractual operation, is a fundamental management system for Chinese countryside.
The main elements of this policy are: collective ownership of rural lands and other major means of production, basis of family contractual operation, land contractual management rights which can be transferred according to laws, enhancement on collective organization services, and support on the various types of cooperation with Ecological Agriculture Technology And Industrialization Serving Agriculture Ruralareas And Farmers S, etc.
When talking about farmland protection, the core content is to maintain the quantity and improve the quality of the farmland, including establishing the basic farmland protection system, implementing the most stringent farmland protection system, strengthening the farmland quality improvement, and improving the land requisition system, etc.
Inimplementing the most stringent farmland system was proposed in the 16 th third plenum of the CPC. Chinese government has paid great attention to food security. Since s, the government has implemented a series of policies and measures to benefit the food development: adhere to the principle that meeting demand with domestic production; implement governor responsibility system of food; improve comprehensive production capacity of food; increase the input to agriculture and food fields; improve financial awards policy; highly strengthen agricultural technology innovation and application; strengthen protection of arable land, water resource and other primary elements for production; improve the reform of food circulation system; promote the food price protection; improve the policy of the regulatory mechanism of food reserves; and establish the food security policy system that obey the rules of market economy.
The contents of the policies have been in a prime position in the No. In the background of global food crisis, the 17 th third plenum of CPC stated that ensuring the national food security and effective supply of major agricultural products is necessary. The main content of the agricultural structural adjustment policy are: promote the upgrading and optimization of industrial structure of agriculture; promote the arrangement optimization of the main area; promote the improvement of agricultural product quality; promote the development of agricultural industrialization; strengthen agricultural research and technology; and construct the structural adjustment supporting system of agricultural industrialization, etc.
Before s, the major objective of the agricultural structural adjustment policy is to never relax grain production, and actively carry out a variety of business. Sincethe central committee declared to be guided by the market, accelerate the development of productive, high quality, efficient agriculture, and promote the regionalization, specialization, and commercialization of agricultural production.
Since ,the central committee has declared to include developing product processing and ensuring the product quality and safety in the main content of the agricultural structural adjustment, and take improving the quality and efficiency, and realizing sustainable agricultural development as the target of the structural adjustment.
Inthe No. Ingovernment support growing oil plants, cotton and other economic crops in advantageous areas, and started to implement a new round of arrangement of agricultural advantageous area.
Since s, the food quality problem has been more and more serious, as the pressure of food quantity problem got relaxed. As a result, China implemented a series of policies and measures, including: establish monitoring system on product quality, quality certification and labeling system, product quality standards system, safe production supporting system, and product quality traceability system, etc.
Since the 21 st century, China has started to formulate rules and provisions relating to agricultural product quality in the law dimension. The product quality and safety issues were considered seriously in the No.
Agricultural taxes are the taxes levied by the government from all companies and individuals working on agricultural production and have agricultural income. From January 1 stvalue-added tax in the link of Ecological Agriculture Technology And Industrialization Serving Agriculture Ruralareas And Farmers S circulation was exempted.
The current main policies and measures include: the abolition of agricultural tax, special agricultural product tax, slaughter tax, and property tax, cancelling "three deductions" and the "five charges", cancelling systems of labor accumulation and volunteer work, and promoting coordinated reform.
In direct subsidy for grain farmers were fully implemented nationwide, and in the grain farmer subsidy came up to Inthe state took the fuel price adjustment as an opportunity, and established the comprehensive agricultural price subsidy system.
The subsidy fund in the same year was 12 billion Yuan, and increase to Inthe agricultural subsidy was greatly increased, full coverage of seed subsidy was realized for rice, wheat, corn and cotton, and the scale of seed subsidy for canola and soybean was also expanded. Inscale of subsidy for potato farming was expanded, highland barley seed subsidy was started, peanut seed subsidy was started in trial areas, and animal husbandry, forestry and drought control, and water-saving machinery were included in the scope of subsidy for agricultural machinery and tool purchase.
After 20 years of reform, China agricultural product market has formed a complete market circulation system by the end of the 20 th century. In the new century, the main content of agricultural product market circulation included: establish diversified market main body, promote diversity of circulation modes; improve construction of various types of markets, construct nationwide circulation network; improve agricultural product quality monitor, and improve the market macro-control capacity.
Science and technology is the key element of agricultural development. Major related agricultural technology includes: animal and plant genetics and breeding technology, cultivation and breeding technology, major pest and disease control technology, mid- and low-yield field improve and regional agricultural comprehensive development technology, Agricultural mechanization and facilities technology, and biotechnology.
From to now, there are year-to-year differences on the focus of agricultural technology policies table 3. For example, the focus was the construction of national agricultural technology innovation system in ; it was to improve the ability of the agricultural technology promotion in ; and it was to support agriculture with meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic technology in The core idea is about the research and development, conversion, promotion and application of the agricultural technology.
And the fundamental purpose is to promote the sustainable and stable development of China's agricultural economy and rural society. Sincethe state has formulated a series of policies and measures of the construction of rural financial system, including improving fiscal support policy and monetary policy support of rural finance, actively developing rural insurance and cooperative foundations, gradually establishing rural disaster compensation system, strengthening the rural financial law system, supporting rural finance policy in the law dimension, standardizing and systematizing the finances, taxation, monetary support policy and agricultural insurance etc.
Sincetrial operations of agricultural insurance premium subsidy were carried out in Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Jiangsu, Hunan, Sichuan and Xinjiang provinces, with 2. Inthe state-arranged agricultural insurance premium subsidy came to 2.
Inthe agricultural insurance policy was further improved, the supporting efforts to the agricultural insurance were increased, and the types of insurance premium subsidy were increased. On the basis of present 14 types of central financial insurance subsidy, sugar plants were taken into the scope of insurance subsidy; agricultural insurance subsidy was implemented in selected trial areas; and subsidy was issued to farmers developing equipped agriculture.
Since 21 st century, policies on rural labor transfer and employment were actively changed, including: rural labor transfer and employment service, rural labor benefit protection, rural labor transfer and employment training, rural labor living condition improvement, and solving education problems for rural labors.
From to present, the No. Agricultural infrastructure generally include: irrigation and water conservancy construction, rural power grid construction, rural road construction, agricultural product circulation equipment construction, commodity grain and cotton production base, timber production base and the construction of protection forest and rural education, health, drinking water, research, technology promotion and meteorological infrastructure construction.
Strengthening agricultural infrastructure construction is one of the important measures to promote rural economic development, and promote the modernization of agriculture. In recent years, China strengthened agricultural infrastructure construction focusing on farmland water conservancy, increased investment in agricultural infrastructure, issued a series of policies and measures, and the main contents include: increased financial investment in agricultural infrastructure construction, implemented comprehensive agricultural development, guided social capital investment in agricultural infrastructure construction, promoted balanced regional development, and reformed rural small-scale infrastructure and other property rights system.
InNo. Therefore, the government will continue to increase the intensity of public finance coverage of rural infrastructure, and gradually establish investment protection Ecological Agriculture Technology And Industrialization Serving Agriculture Ruralareas And Farmers S operation management mechanism. Steadily increase in the minimum purchase price of rice and wheat, improve temporary collection and storage policy for corn, soybeans, rapeseed, cotton and other agricultural products.
Improve the throughput of major agricultural products and regulation mechanism, improve the important agricultural products storage system, and stabilized the market with the help of major enterprise.
Provincial governors and mayors held directly responsible for ensuring basic food supplies. Agricultural trade policy include: import policy, export policy, regional free trade policy. Encourage and guide agricultural export processing enterprises to go to export processing trade zone. Strengthen international negotiation process, sign bilateral quarantine and beneficial trade agreements with major market countries and regions.
Oct 18, developing countries, and particularly in the farming systems of the rural poor. given agro-ecological environment, if land is unequally distributed and if there are . In the industrialized countries, precision farming allows to deal with .. into local varieties, this offers the potential of better serving small.
Accelerate the establishment of industry and trade associations for healthy poultry, vegetables, fruits and other key agricultural exports. Utilize relevant measures in line with WTO rules, and regulate import and export of agricultural products flexibly and effectively.
Since the reform and opening up, China has paid great attention to agricultural resource utilization and environmental protection, has taken agricultural resources and environmental protection into the entire agenda of economic and social development, has rationally developed and effectively protected arable land, fresh water, grasslands, fisheries and agricultural waste resources, and has implemented a series of policy measures on energy saving and emission reduction.
The main content includes: rational utilization and protection of water resources, rational utilization and protection of grassland resources, fishery resources utilization and ecological protection, returning farmland to forest grass project, farmland shelterbelt construction, rural renewable energy development, energy saving in rural life and production, and development of circulation agriculture.
In No. In the 21 st century, the Chinese government implemented new poverty support policy based on the national conditions that rural poverty still exists in the new stage of well-off society. Inthe state proposed to focus on solving problems of living and production difficulties of rural poverty population and disaster affected population, inthe state proposed to implement the mode of all-village development according to local conditions, inNo.
The goal was: bythe rural poverty population should have no problems in food, clothing, education, basic medical care and housing.
The growth rate of per capita net income of farmers in poverty areas is higher than the national average, major indicators of basic public services are close to the national average, and reverse the growing gap trend.
The national poverty alleviation standard was gradually increased from Yuan in to Yuan in Inthe state further increased the standard greatly to Yuan