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The Civil War was the first war in American history in which a substantial proportion of the adult male population participated. The black civil war soldiers of illinois Almost every American would have known friends, family members, or neighbors who marched off to war, many never to return. Please note that the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System contains just an index of the men who served in the Civil War with only rudimentary information from the service records including name, rank and unit in which they served. The full service records are housed at the National Archives and Records Administration. Click here for information about obtaining copies of those records, using the film number listed in the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System record. Explore This Park. The Civil War. Search For Soldiers.
The U. Situated near major rivers and railroads, Illinois became a major jumping off place early in the war for Ulysses S.
Grant 's efforts to seize control of the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers. Statewide, public support for the Union was high despite Copperhead sentiment. Illinois contributedsoldiers to the Union Armyranking it fourth in terms of the total manpower in Federal military service.
Illinois troops predominantly fought in the Western Theateralthough a few regiments played important roles in the East, particularly in the Army of the Potomac. Several thousand Illinoisians were killed or died of their wounds during the war, and a number of national cemeteries were established in Illinois to bury their remains.
The Civil War Soldiers' and Sailors' System (CWSS) is a database compiled by of the Black Hawk, Mexican and Spanish-American Wars as well as the War of.
Besides President Abraham Lincolna number of other Illinois men became prominent in the army or in national politics, including Ulysses S.
Grant a resident when the war startedJohn M. Schofield and John A. No major battles were fought in the the black civil war soldiers of illinois, although several river towns became sites for important supply depots and "brownwater" navy yards.
Several prisoner of war camps and prisons dotted the state afterprocessing thousands of captive Confederate soldiers. However, not everyone in the state supported the war. In fact, there were even calls for secession in Southern Illinois or Little Egypt by several residents. In Marion residents voted to secede from the United States.
A few, even, volunteered for the Confederate States Army in Tennessee. Thirty-four men, while Frank Metcalf claimed they were forty-five,  from the southern tip of the state, were recruited from Jackson and Williamson Countyjoined Company G, "The Illinois Company", of the 15th Tennessee Regiment Volunteer Infantry. However, the movement for secession soon fizzled after the proposal was blocked and shelved.
Eighteen counties of southern Illinois formed the congressional district of Democrat John A. Rumors abounded in early whether he would organize his supporters and join the Confederacy. In fact he was suppressing pro-Confederate elements, and organizing his supporters to fight for the Union. Lincoln made him a general, and Logan played a major role under generals Grant and Sherman.
His men marched to war as Democrats; they marched home as Republicans. Logan helped found the Grand Army of the Republic veteran organization, was elected to the United States Senate as a Republican, and was the Republican vice presidential nominee in During the Civil War,people from Illinois served in the Union army, more than any other northern state except for New YorkPennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with Illinois resident President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, the state mustered infantry regiments, which were numbered from the 7th Illinois to the th Illinois.
Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Camp Douglaslocated near Chicago, was one of the largest training camps for these troops, as well as Camp Butler near Springfield. Both served as leading prisoner-of-war camps for captive Confederates. Several thousand Confederates died while in custody in Illinois prison camps and are buried in a series of nearby cemeteries.
Other major supply depots were located at Mound City and across the Ohio river at Fort Anderson in Paducah, Kentuckyalong with sprawling facilities for the United States Navy gunboats and associated river fleets.
One of which would take part in the nearby Battle of Lucas Bend. Leading major generals with Illinois ties included Ulysses S. SchofieldJohn A.
LoganJohn A. Brigadier General Elon J. Farnsworthwho began his the black civil war soldiers of illinois in the 8th Illinois Cavalry, died at the Battle of Gettysburg. President Lincoln maintained his home in Springfield, Illinoiswhere he is buried. Over soldiers from Illinois units would win the Medal of Honor during the conflict.
The Chicago city government and voluntary societies gave generous support to soldiers during the war. A pair of Chicago-based women, Mary Livermore and Jane Hogeorganized a pair of large expositions, the Northwest Sanitary Fairs, where cash generated from the sale of donated items was later used to purchase medical supplies for the soldiers.
Their activities helped spark the postbellum women's rights movement in Illinois. Mary Ann Bickerdykea resident of Galesburgwas a noted nurse for the Western armies. Workers in various factories and mills, as well as the port and stockyards, helped provide a steady source of materielfood, and clothing to Illinois troops, as well as to the general Union army. Mound City foundry workers converted river steamboats into armored gunboats for Federal service.
With traditional Southern markets cut off by the war, the port of Chicago rose in prominence as Illinois expanded trade with the Great Lakes region. Chicago meatpackers earned venture capital during the war that was reinvested inas the war ended, to create the Northern city's Union Stock Yards. During the Presidential Electiontwo men from Illinois were among the four major candidates.
Illinois voted in favor of Springfield resident Abraham Lincolnvotes or Of minor consequence in the statewide results were Southern candidates John C. Breckinridge 2,; 0. Democrats scored major gains in the election by attacking Lincoln's emancipation plan as danger to the state since it would bring in thousands of freed slaves.
In the presidential electionIllinois residents supported Lincoln's re-election, giving the presidentvotes It was the nation's loudest and most persistent critic of Lincoln and emancipation. At one point early in the Gettysburg Campaign in JuneUnion troops forcibly closed the the black civil war soldiers of illinois at bayonet point. It was only reopened when Democratic mobs threatened to destroy the rival Republican paper and President Lincoln intervened.
Green saw the War as unjust and Lincoln as a despot who had to be stopped. He wrote vicious denunciations of the administration in local newspapers. He was arrested for sedition in After his release in Augusthe became the grand commander of the secret Order of American Knights in Illinois, which fought restrictions on civil liberties.
Green was funded by the Confederate government to arrange riots at the Democratic National Convention in Although the riots never materialized, he continued giving antigovernment speeches until he was again arrested in November After this arrest, he agreed to testify for the government about the activities of the Knights; his testimony implicated others but ignored his own deep involvement in antigovernment plots.
Among the many Illinois generals who rose to post-war prominence were Ulysses S. Grantwho became president inGreen B. Raumwho became a U. Alcornwho was a U. Senator and the Governor of Mississippi. Both were born near Golconda. Galena-born John Aaron Rawlinslong a confidant of U. John M. Palmera resident of Carlinvillewas a postbellum Governor of Illinois and the presidential candidate of the National Democratic Party in the election. Edward S. William P.
Carlin of Carrollton became a general in the postbellum U. Army and commanded several outposts in Montana and elsewhere. A number of soldiers from Illinois regiments would eventually become governors of U.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abraham Lincoln. Ulysses S. Richard Yates. Lyman Trumbull.
Orville H. Elihu B. John Buford. John Pope. John A. Benjamin Grierson. Stephen A. Benjamin Prentiss. Richard J. Gen Elias Smith Dennis. Gen John Aaron Rawlins. Elon J. Cunningham, Morris; et al.
SIU Press. Black Jack: John A. Allardice, "'Illinois is Rotten with Traitors!Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, Reviewed by Ricardo A. Colored Infantry is a rare find in the trove of Civil War regimental histories. Colored Infantry. Edward A.